Molecular, genetic, cytological and evolutionary aspects of sexual reproduction. Comparison of the regulatory genes and proteins of sexual differentiation in Saccharomyces, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, human and plants. Evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction through parthenogenic mechanisms. Three lecture hours. One term. Three credits. Prerequisites: SC/BIOL 2020 3.00, SC/BIOL 2021 3.00, SC/BIOL 2040 3.00, SC/BIOL 2070 3.00.