The processes of digestion, osmoregulation and excretion, circulatory systems and gaseous exchange, metabolism, growth and reproduction are considered. The course adopts a comparative approach, first analyzing the basic principles underlying physiological activities, then examining the means whereby different organisms perform them. Three lecture hours, three laboratory hours. One term. Four credits. Prerequisites: SC/BIOL 2030 4.00, SC/BIOL 2020 3.00, SC/BIOL 2021 3.00.